Single fiber from the OLT runs to a passive Optical Splitter, located near the users’ locations. The Optical Splitter divides the optical power into N separate paths to the users, varying between 2 to 128. GPON adopted with two multiplexing mechanisms- a) in downstream direction (i.e. from OLT to users), data packets transmitted in a broadcast manner, with encryption (AES) used to prevent eavesdropping, b) in upstream direction (i.e. from users to OLT), data packets transmitted in a TDMA manner.